GRM597 Final Examination 100% Correct Answers

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GRM597 Final Examination 100% Correct Answers

1. A standardized test __________.

1. is usually commercially produced and requires a common set of administration and scoring procedures

1. compares an individual’s test performance to the test performance of others

1. relies only on multiple-choice questions

1. is designed and administered by a researcher for a specific research study

2. What is one criticism of the AB single-subject design?

1. too short

1. may be unethical to not apply a facilitative treatment

1. takes too much time and energy

1. does not rely on graphical depiction

3. If you square a correlation coefficient and subtract this number from 1.00, what is the result?

1. the coefficient of alienation

1. the coefficient of determination

1. the amount of variance NOT explained by the variance in each variable

1. both a and c

4. Which section of the proposal contains information on the instrumentation used?

1. introduction

1. method

1. implications and limitations

1. literature review

5. _________ describes a measure used to compare two different tests with the same group of participants to see how closely correlated the two sets of scores are with each other.

1. Inter-rater reliability

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1. Test-retest reliability

1. Parallel-forms reliability

1. Internal consistency

6. What is another term for basic research?

1. real research

1. pure research

1. applied research

1. baseline research

7. A well-written hypothesis:

1. creates a unified theme

1. reflects a theory or body of literature upon which it is based

1. searches through secondary sources

1. uses participants in the study who have been used in similar studies

8. Baylor is concerned that the items on his test really do adequately represent the universe of items from which he chose. Dr. Baylor’s concern is one of ____________.

1. content validity

1. predictive validity

1. concurrent validity

1. construct validity

9. How might case studies be superior to other methods of research?

1. They capitalize on random selection of subjects.

1. They provide good opportunity for generalization.

1. They use powerful statistical procedures.

1. They allow for very detailed examinations of data.

10. What is the standard metric used in most meta-analytic studies called?

1. standard deviation

1. effect size

1. sampling mean

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1. standard error

11. Which of the following is NOT a type of survey research?

1. interview

1. observation

1. focus groups or panels

1. questionnaires

12. Which of the following threats to external validity happens when subjects receive unintended treatments?

1. reactive arrangements

1. multiple treatment interference

1. experimenter effects

1. pretest sensitization

13. One of the keys to successful operation of the central limit theorem is that the sample size must be

___________.

1. less than 20

1. greater than 30

1. greater than 40

1. greater than 50

14. Which of the following would be considered a continuous variable?

1. the number answered correctly on a history test

1. grade level in school

1. gender

1. length

15. What is one suggested limitation of the single subject design?

1. significant expense

1. internal validity

1. external validity

1. none of the above

16. The minimum or maximum value that one would expect the test statistic to yield if the null

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hypothesis is true is an example of which of the following?

1. critical value

1. F value

1. F value

1. sampling mean

17. Which coefficient reflects the occurrence of perfect reliability?

1. + 1.00

1. + .50

1. +.100

2. + 2.00

18. What is the most common use of the Internet?

1. direct research

1. V

1. e-mail

1. advertisements through home pages

19. Which section of a manuscript discusses the reliability of any tests that were used?

1. introduction

1. methods

1. results

1. discussion

20. Jacob is interested to see if there is a relationship between student absentee rate and national test scores. Which would be the appropriate research method to use?

1. historical

1. correlational

1. descriptive

1. longitudinal

21. What is the shortened title which appears at the top of each proposal page called?

1. an abstract

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1. a running head

1. an introduction

1. a reference

22. If it is not possible to randomize or administer a pretest, what is the best choice of design?

1. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)

1. static group design

1. nonequivalent control group design

1. Solomon four-group design

23. Which of the following is concerned with monitoring estimates of present performance and predictions of future performance?

1. content validity

1. criterion validity

1. construct validity

1. internal validity

24. Which correlation coefficient indicates the strongest relationship?

1. 00

1. +0.50

1. -0.70

1. +0.60

25. Longitudinal studies examine changes that occur with age; what do cross-sectional studies examine?

1. immediate treatment effects across groups

1. long-term treatment effects

1. age changes

1. age differences

26. What can you conclude if the obtained value of a test statistic exceeds the critical value?

1. The null hypothesis cannot be rejected.

1. You made an error when calculating the test statistic.

1. The null hypothesis can be rejected.

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1. Your obtained value is not statistically significant.

27. Which design is represented below?

Group 1 Treatment Posttest Group 2 No Treatment Posttest

1. nonequivalent control group design

1. static group comparison

1. Solomon two group design

1. factorial design

28. Which section of a manuscript discusses the general types of data analyses that were planned and used in the study?

1. introduction

1. abstract

1. results

1. method

29. If you read that a study’s finding was significant at the p < .05 level, you could conclude that there is a less than 5% probability that _____________.
1. the results will translate to real world situations
1. most researchers in that area would consider the finding to have clinical meaning
1. the researchers used unreliable measures
1. the results were due to chance
30. The experimental design that uses one group, a treatment, and a posttest is called ___________.
1. one-shot case study design
1. pretest posttest control group design
1. Solomon four-group design
1. one-group pretest posttest design
31. Which parts of a manuscript have limitations of words as suggested by the text?
1. title and abstract
1. title only
1. abstract only

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1. no limits were suggested by the text

32. In order to determine the critical value, which two pieces of information are needed?

1. mean and sample size

1. degrees of freedom and level of significance

1. mean and standard deviation

1. degrees of freedom and variance

33. Which measure of variability describes the average deviation of each score from the mean?

1. range

1. standard deviation

1. mode

1. mean

34. A research hypothesis ____________.

1. represents an equality

1. is represented by Roman symbols

1. is tested indirectly

1. is implicit

35. If the measures associated with a test are said to be consistent, you might conclude the measure is

__________.

1. standard

1. valid

1. reliable

1. concurrent

36. What margin spacing should be used in a proposal?

1. .5 inches

1. 1 inch

1. 1.5 inches

1. 2 inches

37. What is one step a researcher can take to ensure that ethical principles are maintained?

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1. a computer simulation in which data are constructed and subjected to the effects of various treatments

1. When the treatment is deemed harmful, try to locate a population that has already been exposed to the treatment.

1. If the treatment involves risk, be absolutely sure that the risks are clear to the participants and other parties.

1. all of the above

38. What does the ethical principle of “sharing benefits” mean?

1. all participants in the same study should receive an equal share of the benefits or subject payments

1. all those who belong to the population being studied will share equally from the benefits the study produces

1. the results of studies must be shared with the public so society may benefit from the increased knowledge

1. all groups involved in a study should eventually be given an opportunity to receive any treatments that were found to be effective in the study

39. Which section of a manuscript is usually NOT labeled?

1. discussion

1. methods

1. results

1. introduction

40. Which of the following statements about qualitative research would be considered false?

1. It allows the researcher to answer different types of questions than quantitative research does.

1. It is much less complex than quantitative research because numbers are not extensively involved.

1. It is often descriptive in nature.

1. Many different types of sources can be utilized in qualitative research.

41. What is the best way to begin an interview?

1. Be direct.

1. Use a tape-recorder.

1. Warm-up with some general conversation.

1. Make the interviewee feel like an important part of the project.

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42. What is the second step in conducting historical research?

1. evaluating authenticity and accuracy of evidence

1. formulating a hypothesis

1. defining a topic or problem

1. integrating data

43. What type of test defines a specific level of performance (or mastery) of some content domain?

1. standardized test

1. researcher-made test

1. norm-referenced test

1. criterion-referenced test

44. Which source should NOT be cited in a formal literature review?

1. Newsweek

1. Review of Educational Research

1. Handbook of Child Psychology

1. Journal of Educational Finance

45. In true experimental designs, what does research attempt to isolate and control?

1. factors not tested that could be responsible for any effects except the ones being tested

1. statistics that are used to interpret the results

1. laboratory conditions to maximize the validity of the experiment

1. answers of the people in the study

46. How can descriptive statistics be defined?

1. describing elements of a distribution

1. relating the data to a larger population

1. developing a research question

1. identical to inferential statistics

47. The best dependent variable is defined by which of the following characteristics?

1. independent of any other variable in the same study

1. sensitive to changes in the treatment

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1. can be manipulated by the researcher

1. interacts with the independent variable

48. What is another way the mode can be described?

1. divides the sample in half

1. averages the test scores

1. occurs most frequently

1. tells how much variability there is in the test scores

49. What is another name for research that occurs “post hoc”?

1. experimental

1. correlational

1. quasi-experimental

1. historical

50. What is the major limitation of the quasi-experimental design?

1. its complexity

1. its reliance on continuous independent variables

1. the preassignment to groups

1. overreliance on randomization

51. The significance level reported in a research study can be explained by which of the following?

1. importance of the results to the benefit of society

1. statistical methods to determine the results of the study

1. risk associated with not being 100% confident the difference is due to the treatment

1. importance of the results to the benefit of an individual

52. What is the most popular search engine?

1. Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC)

1. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

1. Bibliographic Index Plus

1. Google

53. What does generalizability refers to?

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1. results that may be applied to different populations in different settings

2. results that apply only to the sample studied

3. convenience sampling

1. using a table of random numbers

54. The level of significance is similar to which of the following?

1. a Type I error

1. a Type II error

1. a bell curve

1. the null hypothesis

55. Which of the following methods provides information about past trends?

1. Historical

1. correlational

1. experimental

1. descriptive

56. Which of the following is NOT a component of a multiple-choice question?

1. the stem

1. the root

1. distracters

1. alternatives

57. What is the third step of developing an interview?

1. selecting a sample

1. developing the questions

1. training the interviewers

1. stating the purpose of the interview

58. What does the central limit theorem enable researchers to do?

1. compare means from two independent samples

1. generalize the results from a sample to a population without knowing the exact nature of the population’s distribution

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1. compute the significance of a relationship between two variables

1. reduce the possibility that chance accounts for variability in the variable of interest

59. What is one disadvantage of the Solomon four-group design?

1. It lacks a control group.

1. You have to pretest every group.

1. It is prone to sampling error.

1. It is time-consuming.

60. A table of random numbers ____________.

1. is used in nonprobability sampling methods

1. is a list of ordered numbers from which the researcher closes his eyes and randomly points until he obtains the desired number for his sample

1. works well with convenience sampling

1. cannot be used to create a stratified sample

61. In a set of scores with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, what raw score is represented by a z score of 2.00?

1. 115

1. 130

1. 100

1. 70

62. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of a case study?

1. It allows close examination of greatly detailed data.

1. It provides a rich account of what is being studied.

1. It is a quick method of obtaining information.

1. Several different types of techniques can be used to obtain data.

63. A measure of how stable a test is over time is an example of which of the following?

1. inter-rater reliability

1. test-retest reliability

1. parallel forms reliability

1. internal consistency

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64. Index of +1.00 means that the item ____________.

1. fails to discriminate

1. discriminates perfectly

1. is too easy

1. is too hard

65. Which of the following is an example of a closed-ended interview question?

1. Why did you vote for Gerald Ford?

1. Did you vote for Gerald Ford?

1. What were the reasons for your decision?

1. What were the strengths of Gerald Ford’s presidency?

66. How can Type II errors be reduced?

1. decreasing sample size

1. homogeneous population

1. increasing sample size

1. heterogeneous population

67. Which of the following difficulty levels indicates the item that was the most difficult?

1. 40

1. 30

1. 05

1. 50

68. What is one of the limitations of the case-study method?

1. cause-and-effect links cannot be established

1. provides more breadth than depth

1. only one technique is used to gather data

1. focus is placed upon several individuals at a time

69. Hannah assigns children to different teaching method groups and tests their math performance after six weeks. This is an example of what type of research?

1. descriptive

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1. historical

1. experimental

1. uncontrolled

70. What is a likely negative consequence of NOT titling your manuscript in a way that clearly reflects its content?

1. Your manuscript may be rejected.

1. It may be indexed incorrectly and others searching for a particular subject may miss it.

1. You may send it to the wrong type of journal.

1. There are no likely negative consequences.

71. What measure must be established prior to the treatment variable to measure its effectiveness?

1. baseline

1. measure of internal validity

1. measure of external validity

1. pretest data range

72. What is the best definition of an institutional review board?

1. a group of people who make decisions regarding an institution’s human resources

1. a group of people found in most public institutions and private agencies who render a judgment as to whether experiments carried out in their facilities are free from risk

1. a group of people who review the literature produced by researchers in their institution in order to keep an accounting of it

1. a group of people representing many different institutions who meet to review the current literature in their respective fields

73. Which one of the following is NOT an important criterion for increasing reliability?

1. eliminate unclear test items

1. standardize the environmental conditions in which the test is given

1. moderate the ease and difficulty of the test

1. use subjective scoring procedures

74. Which is a subsection found in the method section?

1. introduction

1. running head

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1. results

1. data analysis

75. What is the least observed ethical principle in conducting research?

1. sharing benefits

1. debriefing participants

1. sharing results

1. maintaining privacy

76. What type of threat to internal validity is associated with practice effects?

1. maturation

1. regression

1. testing

1. instrumentation

77. Which measure of central tendency provides the most information?

1. median

1. mean

1. midpoint

1. mode

78. What measure would be used to compute the average gender of subjects?

1. mean

1. mode

1. median

1. standard deviation

79. What is the proper order of the following designs if they are to be listed from the one with the least amount of control over variables to the most?

1. pretest posttest control group, Solomon four-group, quasi-experimental, one-group pretest posttest

1. one-group pretest posttest, quasi-experimental, pretest posttest control group, Solomon four-group

1. one-group pretest posttest, pretest posttest control group, Solomon four-group, quasi-experimental

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1. quasi-experimental, one-group pretest posttest, pretest posttest control group, Solomon four-group

80. Professor Russel wants to examine the effectiveness of his new reading instruction method for third graders. He locates two third grade classes in the same school. He assesses all students’ current reading ability at the start of the school year. He then has one classroom utilize his new instruction method while the other classroom uses the traditional method. At the end of the school year, Professor Russell assesses reading ability once again and compares group differences. The design of this study exemplifies which of the following?

1. nonequivalent control group design

1. static group comparison

1. Solomon two group design

1. factorial design

81. In which of the following instances are tests used as dependent variables?

1. to assist in selection to a graduate program

1. to help in placing a child into an appropriate program based on reading level

1. to screen for a possible learning disability

1. to determine the effectiveness of a specific type of instruction

82. When a normal distribution is represented by a histogram, where would most scores fall?

1. in the extremes of the distribution

1. in the middle of the distribution

1. outside of the distribution

1. on the high end of the distribution

83. Which of the following has the largest potential to decrease the accuracy of an inference made to a population based on a sample?

1. variance

1. a heterogeneous sample

1. a homogeneous sample

1. sampling error

84. Which of the following questions would NOT be considered to be an external criticism?

1. “Was this document written when claimed?”

1. “Was this document found where one might expect it?”

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1. “Do the numbers listed in this document seem plausible based on other sources?”

1. “Is this document truly written by the person it appears to be written by?”

85. Many researchers devise “sham” treatments for their control groups to undergo, meaning that the control group interacts with researchers in some way that is not thought to impact the dependent variable, or the outcome. This is done to weaken the argument that the ‘treatment group improvement may have occurred in part simply due to the attention this group received from the researchers. These researchers are attempting to control for which of the following?

1. multiple treatment interference

1. the Hawthorne effect

1. selection

1. experimenter effects

86. What levels of measurement define most variables in behavioral and social science research?

1. interval and ratio

1. nominal and ordinal

1. nominal and ratio

1. nominal and interval

87. The critical value decreases when _____________.

1. the sample size increases

1. the sample size decreases

1. the sample is heterogeneous

1. the sample is homogeneous

88. Which interview question is open-ended?

1. Do you smoke?

1. Are you married?

1. How old are you?

1. How do you feel about tests?

89. Which of the following best describes independent variables?

1. not manipulated by the experimenter

1. manipulated to assess the effect of the treatment

1. unrelated to the treatment

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1. not necessary

90. When we calculate reliability, we know the observed score. What are the two unknown components of the reliability equation?

1. method and error scores

1. means and standard deviations

1. test-retest and inter-rater scores

1. true and error scores

91. Which is the most comprehensive guide to general literature?

1. The New York Times Index

1. The Reader’s Guide, Full Text Mega Edition

1. Statistical Abstract of the United States

1. Review of Educational Research

92. Which of the following statements regarding correlational research is false?

1. Correlational research describes the linear relationship between two or more variables.

1. Correlational research is a very effective means of establishing casual relationships.

1. Correlational research is a type of descriptive research.

1. Correlational research can help to “paint a broad picture” of the current state of some phenomenon.

93. If, while using the nonequivalent control group design, the researcher discovers that groups differ on the pretest measure, one technique which can be used to statistically equalize the groups on the pretest is ____________.

1. factor analysis

1. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

1. parallel forms pretesting

1. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)

94. What is another term for accuracy?

1. authenticity

1. secondary

1. internal criticism

1. validity

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95. Inter-rater reliability measures consistency ___________.

1. over time

1. from form to form

1. across different tests

1. from rater to rater

96. There will be no relationship between children’s time in day care and later academic achievement. This is an example of which of the following?

1. a research hypothesis

1. a factorial design

1. a correlational hypothesis

1. a null hypothesis

97. When is a stratified sample an appropriate sampling technique?

1. specific characteristics of the population are of no concern

1. individuals in a population are not equal

1. each member must have an equal chance of being selected

1. you have a small population

98. The term nonequivalent in “nonequivalent control group design” refers to the nonequivalence of

____________.

1. sample size

1. pretesting procedures

1. groups before the experiment begins

1. groups after the experiment has ended

99. What is one of the advantages of using online search services?

1. you are not likely to miss very much

1. this is an outdated method

1. it is stated in a declarative form

1. you can enter the data for any one reference using a standard form

100. If Dr. Robinson rejects the null hypothesis after observing a test statistic which exceeds the critical value at the .05 level, there is __________.

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1. a 95% chance that the null hypothesis is actually true

2. a 5% chance that the null hypothesis is actually true

3. a 5% chance that the null hypothesis is actually false

4. no chance that the null hypothesis is actually true