BCJ 565 Terrorism and Homeland Security Final Exam Answers Part 1

BCJ 565 Terrorism and Homeland Security Final Exam Answers Part 1

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BCJ 565 Terrorism and Homeland Security Final Exam Answers Part 1

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BCJ 565 Terrorism and Homeland Security Final Exam Answers Part 1

Final Exam

Exam ID: 103b78c0-52a1-44bc-b6a0-eb5a3253650f

1. Conflict and Marxist theories are considered ______ perspectives.

1. constructivist

1. relativist

1. normalist

1. positivist

2. A ______ status refers to the status that shapes perception and behaviors of those around you and is considered the most important status.

1. primary

1. master

1. ruling

1. finite

3. Which of the following focuses on groups or individuals who are assumed to be more “at risk” for deviant behavior?

1. normative conception

1. prevention programs

1. positivist perspective

1. folkways

4. Which social disorganization theorist explored conceptualizations of individual versus collective efficacy?

1. Darwin

1. Sampson

1. Sutherland

1. Merton

5. Which of the following terms describes an individual who becomes involved in deviance as a sequence of events?


1. deviant careers

1. career deviance

1. short-term deviance

1. long-term deviance

6. Akers found that social learning variables were predictive of the use of which substances in his 1998 self-report study?

1. heroin and methamphetamine

1. smoking and alcohol

1. alcohol and marijuana

1. cocaine and heroin

7. Which of the following is an example of workplace deviance?

1. having a few drinks the night before you work

1. arriving at work 15 minutes prior to your shift

1. calling in sick when you are not really sick

1. asking for time off to see a doctor

8. According to the text, the Internet has helped facilitate the transformation of ______ from a psychological phenomenon into something sociological.

1. anorexics and bulimics

1. homosexual couples

1. self-injurers

1. voluntarily childless

9. The ideal body type is an example of anomie/strain because ______.

1. the ideal body type creates an unrealistic expectation among members of society

1. the ideal body type is attained in illegal ways

1. the ideal body type is representative of the norm and lacks diversity

1. the ideal body type is too easily attained

10. Which of the following is TRUE regarding random assignment?

1. Random assignment ensures that any differences following the intervention or “experimental” stimulus must have been caused by the intervention.


1. Random assignment ensures that any similarities following the observational stimulus must have been an “effect” of the intervention.

1. Random assignment ensures that any discrepancies following the ethnographic observation must have been correlated with the intervention.

1. Random assignment ensures that any parallels between intervention and the “experimental” stimulus must be extremely high.

11. Which of the following is a criticism of labeling theories?

1. Labeling theories rarely have anything to say about individuals, only groups and places.

1. Rather than addressing why individuals commit acts of deviance, labeling theories focus on the circumstances under which one is judged as deviant.

1. There are forms of deviance that labeling theories would have a hard time explaining.

1. Labeling theory is tautological; that is, by definition, circular and not testable.

12. Both the Marxist and conflict theories operate from a ______ perspective.

1. global

1. micro

1. macro

1. meso

13. Which of the following risk factor domains for deviance onset would include rebelliousness of peers?

1. school

1. family

1. individual and peer

1. community

14. Random assignment is important in experimental research because ______.

1. it assures internal validity is maintained

1. it assures external validity is maintained

1. it is a snowball sampling technique

1. at root, it is the same as random selection

15. A pathway or line of development over a lifespan is referred to as a ______.

1. trajectory

1. transition


1. development

1. pattern

16. Marxist and conflict theories differ in their definition of ______, in addition to the policy implications that stem from each theory.

1. economics

1. politics

1. power

1. deviance

17. ______ is important in understanding deviance because it helps us systematically think about deviance and provides solutions to the problems we study.

1. Data

1. Hypothesis

1. Theory

1. Policy

18. All of the following are TRUE regarding spirituality and our understanding of crime, deviance, and desistance EXCEPT:

1. Quantitative analyses of these data lend no support to the idea that spirituality (closeness to God and church attendance) was related to desistance.

1. Spirituality is clearly something that will garner more theoretical and empirical attention as federal money is invested into faith-based approaches to reforming criminals and other deviants.

1. Spirituality, like other “hooks,” such as new relationships, occupations, and geographic moves away from “bad influences,” are also likely to be carefully studied both quantitatively and qualitatively in the future.

1. Quantitative and qualitative analyses both offer outstanding empirical support to the idea that spirituality is related to desistance.

19. Punishing those individuals who act outside of the accepted range of behavior serves the function of


1. resocializing them into proper treatment

1. deterring others who might violate

1. moral affirmation or symbolism

1. rehabilitation


20. Subjectively, problematic conceptions are also referred to as ______ and ______ perspectives.

1. normative; positivistic

1. normative; reactionist/relativist

1. social constructionist; normative

1. social constructionist; reactionist/relativist

21. Mores are defined as ______.

1. everyday norms and simple activities that do not cause a major disturbance if deviated

1. moral norms that may generate more outrage if broken

1. moral norms that will upset people and receive formal sanctions

1. norms backed by official or formal sanctions and are a deviation from norms understood by majority of a group

22. Which of the following statements pertaining to Venezuelan prisons is TRUE?

1. the prisons in Venezuela are considered to be the largest in the world

1. penal confinement is prescribed for all felony convictions

1. the use of probation as a sentence is high

1. family members do not have visiting rights

23. ______ observation is a technique used in which the researchers identify themselves and avoid deception of the group being observed.

1. Covert

1. Overt

1. Participant

1. Laboratory

24. Patrick is a high school senior on track for a college baseball scholarship. He chooses not to drink at a party because he does not want to get caught and benched from his final season. This is an example of the ______ component of the social bond.

1. involvement

1. attachment

1. belief

1. commitment

25. A study that is praised for high internal validity would include which of the following elements?


1. The subjects are randomly assigned and the only difference between conditions is that the researcher improvises everything in the moment.

1. The subjects are randomly assigned and the only difference between conditions is planned, controlled, and carried out consistently by the researcher.

1. The subjects are randomly found through a “snowball sampling” technique.

1. The subjects are not interacted with by the researcher and must be viewed from a one-way looking glass with the researcher on one side and the subject being viewed by the researcher on the other side.

26. According to the general theory of crime, the major cause of low self-control is ______.

1. bad parenting

1. peer socialization

1. delayed gratification

1. lack of education

27. According to the text, researchers have shown that differential association and social learning variables are predictive of ______.

1. psychological disorders

1. schizophrenia

1. sexual deviance

1. substance abuse

28. Which of the following was NOT a finding in Chambliss’s “The Saints and the Roughnecks” study?

1. Those who have less power find it difficult to resist labels.

1. Communities react differently to deviance depending on the group engaging in the deviant act.

1. Individuals accept the labels attached to them.

1. Individuals deny labels ascribed to them.

29. Turk (2002) argued that capitalist conflict is ______, meaning it is designed to keep workers focused on issues promoting division, competition, and us-versus-them mentalities.

1. beneficial

1. a construct

1. dialectical

1. diversionary


30. The phrase, “leave the kids alone wherever possible,” BEST describes which policy for dealing with delinquent youths?

1. nonintervention

1. deinstitutionalization

1. restorative justice

1. reintegrative shaming

31. Shaw and McKay’s work on juveniles found that rates of delinquency ______.

1. appeared to cluster in certain neighborhoods

1. were lowest in neighborhoods in or around business and industrial areas

1. appeared to be distributed randomly across the neighborhoods

1. tend to decline as people moved closer to the central business district

32. The ______ philosophy allows battered women to experience “horizontal” justice, which is focused on the process of solving the problem.

1. conflict

1. peacemaking

1. critical race

1. liberal feminist

33. Which factors influence career deviance?

1. onset, conflict, resistance

1. continuation, conflict, resistance

1. onset, resistance, desistance

1. onset, continuation, desistance

34. According to power-control theory, ______ constitute the primary agents of socialization in families.

1. siblings

1. fathers

1. mothers

1. grandmothers

35. Which theorist introduced operant conditioning to social learning theories?

1. Edwin Sutherland


1. Ronald Akers

1. Robert Merton

1. Gresham Sykes

36. Which population tends to be the focus of social learning theories?

1. drug addicts

1. juvenile delinquents

1. geriatric patients

1. newborns and toddlers

37. A researcher is conducting a quasi-experimental research design. Which sampling technique will he or she use?

1. random selection

1. random assignment

1. snowballing technique

1. nonrandom assignment

38. Experimental research examines a causal relationship which involves:

1. cause and impact

1. correlation and effect

1. cause and effect

1. correlation and impact

39. All of the following characteristics of social structure might affect social learning EXCEPT:

1. differential social organization

1. differential location in the social structure

1. statistically defined individual variables

1. differential social location in groups

40. A study of career deviance and deviant careers MUST include a study of ______.

1. how deviance changes over time

1. singular instances of deviance

1. the onset of deviance


1. the desistance of deviancy

41. Which of the following pertaining to Scandinavian prisons is TRUE?

1. they are comparable to the prison systems in Latin America

1. there is no death penalty or life sentence

1. prisoners are not very likely to be released once institutionalized

1. prison cells in Halden, Norway are filthy

42. According to differential opportunity theory, ______ subcultures are considered “double failures,” because they cannot find legitimate or illegitimate subcultures to fit in.

1. conflict

1. criminal

1. consensus

1. retreatist

43. Marx believed that reality exists in the ______ world.

1. immaterial

1. economic

1. political

1. material

44. Which of the following is NOT recognized as a challenge to returning to society from serving time in an institution?

1. shock to a new system after being confined

1. consequentiality of felony records

1. stigma of being a convict by society

1. denial of rehabilitation access

45. ______ feminists argue that pornography subordinates women to men, making women second-class citizens.

1. Critical-porn

1. Anti-porn

1. Pro-porn

1. Collective-porn


46. ______ institutions describe severe forms of social control, such as jails, prisons, juvenile correctional facilities, and mental hospitals.

1. Formal

1. Informal

1. Total

1. Modern

47. An interesting way to examine deviance is to look at it in which of the following contexts?

1. political

1. social

1. cultural

1. economical

48. Survey research typically asks questions regarding all of the following EXCEPT:

1. attitudes

1. behaviors

1. values

1. likes/dislikes

49. ______ and trust between neighbors is seen as a necessary condition for residents to be willing to intervene for the common good.

1. Individual efficacy

1. Social cohesion

1. Social disorder

1. Loyalty

50. According to Hirschi, our MOST important attachment is probably to our ______.

1. friends

1. peers

1. parents

1. siblings

51. Which of the following theories could explain the effects of familial control on gender differences in crime?


1. power-control theory

1. critical race theory

1. general theory of crime

1. self-control theory

52. ______ level programs of deviance prevention provide opportunities and rewards for doing good deeds within a neighborhood.

1. Individual

1. Primary

1. Community

1. Peer

53. Which of the following branches of feminism focuses on gender role socialization?

1. postmodern feminism

1. socialist feminism

1. liberal feminism

1. radical feminism

54. Which of the following theorists introduced the ideas of integrative shaming and stigmatization effects of labeling in his piece “Crime, Shame and Reintegration” (1989)?

1. Tannebaum

1. Chambliss

1. Braithwaite

1. Scheff

55. Objectively, deviance assumes that a general set of ______ exist within a society that guides people’s actions and behaviors.

1. professions

1. activities

1. norms

1. official sanctions

56. What term does Karl Marx use to refer to the laborers of production?

1. bourgeoisie


1. working class

1. proletariat

1. privileged

57. What types of social controls exist in society?

1. formal and informal

1. positive and negative

1. legal and illegal

1. pleasant and unpleasant

58. One can trace social control theory to the 18th century work of ______.

1. Karl Marx

1. Cesare Becarria

1. Cesare Lombroso

1. Travis Hirschi

59. Which of the following statements regarding labeling theories is TRUE?

1. Labeling is a macro-level perspective.

1. Symbolic interactionists advocate direct observation of the social world.

1. Labeling theorists argue that reactions to deviant behavior can be ignored.

1. In defining deviance, the reaction to the behavior or the person is not as important.

60. Rules of behavior that guide people’s actions are referred to as ______.

1. laws

1. folkways

1. mores

1. norms

61. In many cases, fraudulent doctor practices are aimed at ______.

1. religious institutions

1. elderly patients

1. insurance companies

1. other doctors


62. Discrimination and stigma are examples of which factors that create barriers faced in desistance?

1. individual factors

1. relational factors

1. societal factors

1. structural factors

63. Limited support, strained families, pimps, and social isolation are examples of which factors that create barriers faced in desistance?

1. individual factors

1. relational factors

1. societal factors

1. structural factors

64. In order to study deviant behavior inductively, how do researchers BEST form a research question?

1. Researchers must systematically study the population first before creating a question.

1. Inductive reasoning includes studying people in controlled research labs.

1. A research question is formed from initial observations, followed by a scientific method after the initial observations.

1. Research questions are created through quantified facts obtained by researchers.

65. ______ occurs when an individual is typically viewed as a good person, but they have just committed a bad deed.

1. Reintegrative shaming

1. Stigmatization

1. Residual shaming

1. Interpretive shaming

66. Early Chicago researchers believed that they could find the causes of crime in the ______.

1. family structure

1. economic conditions of the nation

1. structure of the environment

1. political environment

67. Many researchers have proven that ______ (also referred to as “faith-based approaches”) can be seen as a “hook”—something that someone involved in career deviance can grab a hold of to help


them use their own human agency to open doors out of the lifestyle they wish to exit. a. collective efficacy

1. yoga

1. spirituality

1. learning a language

68. ______ is known for questioning the status quo.

1. Feminist criminology

1. Biocriminology

1. Postmodern criminology

1. Peacemaking criminology

69. ______ deviance is known to evoke stereotypes, such as stigma and discrimination.

1. Physical

1. Workplace

1. Criminal

1. Sexual

70. Beckett and Herbert view ______ as “an emerging and consequential social control practice. . .

[that] is consequential, even more so than the civility codes that they increasingly supplant.”

1. broken windows policing

1. banishment

1. reintegrative shaming

1. collective efficacy

71. The “gold standard” for determining causal relationships is what type of research?

1. participant observation research

1. field research

1. experimental research

1. content analysis research

72. According to Durkheim, all of the following key factors impact suicide rate variations EXCEPT:

1. regulation of society


1. social integration

1. social change

1. demographic makeup

73. ______ deviance is defined as “criminal and deviant acts by the largest corporations and the most powerful political organizations.”

1. Ethnocentric

1. Elite

1. Criminogenic

1. Corporate

74. Who is considered the father of sociology and an early contributor to anomie/strain theory?

1. Edwin Sutherland

1. Émile Durkheim

1. Robert Merton

1. Travis Hirschi

75. The authors use the ______ analogy to argue multiple theoretical approaches to understanding deviance exists.

1. hot dog

1. salad bar

1. tossed salad

1. ice-cream shop

76. How does labeling theory lead to secondary deviance?

1. Labeling alters an individual’s self-concept.

1. Secondary deviance restricts opportunities to conform.

1. Labeling creates limitless conforming opportunities.

1. Labeling discourages involvement in deviant subcultures.

77. The process by which nonmedical problems become defined and treated as medical problems, usually in terms of illnesses or disorders, is referred to as ______.

1. medicalization

1. construction


1. demedicalization

1. deconstruction

78. Susan is a serious alcoholic that has abandoned society’s goals for success and has sought illegitimate means to make a living. Susan can be considered a(n) ______.

1. conformist

1. innovator

1. retreatist

1. rebel

79. ______ research studies subjects in their natural setting, outside of a laboratory.

1. Content analysis

1. Quasi-experimental

1. Survey

1. Field

80. The process in which problems or behaviors no longer retain medical definitions is referred to as


1. medicalization

1. construction

1. demedicalization

1. deconstruction

81. According to positivist/normative conceptions of deviance, deviance is defined as ______.

1. behaviors that illicit a definition or label of deviance

1. inherently deviant behaviors committed by criminals

1. critiques of the social system that exist and create such norms

1. violations of a rule understood by the majority of a group

82. Which of the following types of people resided in Shaw and McKay’s “zone in transition”?

1. wealthy

1. working class

1. educated citizens

1. recent immigrants


83. Which of the following techniques would one use to argue that one’s behavior was a mistake or an accident?

1. the condemnation of the condemners

1. denial of responsibility

1. denial of victim

1. the appeal to higher loyalties

84. Which of the following theorists put social disorganization as a macro-level control theory where residents in neighborhoods characterized by poverty, population turnover, and racial/ethnic heterogeneity cannot control their environments and achieve common goals?

1. Clifford Shaw

1. Henry McKay

1. Ruth Kornhauser

1. Robert Agnew

85. Folkway norms are defined as ______.

1. every day norms that do not cause a major disturbance if deviated

1. moral norms that will upset people but do not face formal sanctions

1. moral norms that will upset people and receive formal sanctions

1. norms backed by official or formal sanctions and are a deviation from norms understood by the majority of a group

86. Which of the following is an assumption of anomie/strain theories?

1. Social order is a product of endless conflict and temporary resolution.

1. Norms are widely shared by a society and its members.

1. Laws establish social order.

1. Punishment is an appropriate response for deviance.

87. All of the following are examples of unconventional romantic relationships EXCEPT:

1. two 25-year-olds, male and female

1. two males

1. a very young girl with an older man

1. polygamists

88. At the turn of the 20th century, ______ were seen as the cause of social problems of the day.


1. absent fathers

1. new immigrants

1. unwed mothers

1. homeless people

89. ______ theories focus on practices and policies that alleviate structural conditions and improve services for the voiceless.

1. Religious

1. Peacemaking

1. Marxist

1. Feminist

90. Those advocating from a ______ perspective would say that, once Edward Snowden uncovered PRISM, the government should have disbanded the program outright because of its Fourth Amendment violations.

1. feminist

1. critical race

1. conflict

1. peacemaking

91. Which of the following is NOT an issue or concern encountered during survey research?

1. determining an appropriate sample size

1. determining the research question and topic

1. consideration of national surveys and breadth necessary

1. the possibility of a low response rate and applying it to results

92. From a social constructionist perspective, deviance is ______.

1. defined the same across multiple countries

1. defined the same by multiple societies and subcultures

1. a behavior that is inherently deviant

1. constructed based on interactions of those immediate to society and not inherent

93. Which theorist notably influenced Ron Akers’s four concepts of social learning theory?

1. Edwin Sutherland


1. Robert Merton

1. Travis Hirschi

1. Gresham Sykes

94. Which of the following is NOT a criticism of social disorganization theories?

1. Criminology focuses on individuals while social disorganization focuses on groups and places over time.

1. Longitudinal data is expensive and difficult to collect, therefore this theory is limited.

1. Social disorganization theories are largely focused on juvenile delinquency and street crimes.

1. Social disorganization theories were not applied at the micro-level.

95. All of the following are considered principle elements of the looking-glass self EXCEPT:

1. the imagination of our appearance to another person

1. the imagination of judgment of our appearance

1. self-feeling, such as pride or mortification

1. conversations with oneself to decide whether or not to engage in deviance

96. Which of the following BEST describes a social contract?

1. a written agreement for behavior based on the norms

1. when individuals give up some personal freedoms and abide general rules of conduct

1. an agreement that is violated when one conforms to society’s expectations

1. an agreement that stipulates an agreed upon relationship between the signer and signee

97. Anomie/strain theories assume social order is ______.

1. a result of endless conflict and temporary resolution

1. established through laws imposed by upper classes

1. the product of a cohesive set of norms

1. impossible to attain

98. Research on deviance is often ______, focused on factors associated with how deviance is distributed across different groups or factors thought to be causes or consequences of deviance.

1. historical

1. experimental

1. descriptive


1. quasi-experimental

99. Which theorist is known for developing differential association theory?

1. Robert Merton

1. Edwin Sutherland

1. Ronald Akers

1. Robert Burgess

100. Messner and Rosenfeld identified the values that underlie the American Dream as all of the following EXCEPT:

1. individualism

1. materialism

1. achievement

1. humanitarianism

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